Salvini cichlid (Trichromis salvini) is a freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae, very bright and attractive. Just like all cichlid species it can be quite aggressive, since this is a territory dependent fish. Also it is a predator, so it’ll treat all small sized fishes as food. Therefore it should be kept separately from others or with other species.
Habitat in the wild
Salvini fish is widespread in rivers of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras that fall into the Atlantic ocean. The fish was artificially settled in some areas in the South of Florida state.
Most dense population of the fish is in rivers, lakes and other waters along the Atlantic seaboard as well as in freshwater lagoons down the coastline. Prefers small rivers with moderate and fast water flow, that are located not higher than 500 meters above mean sea level.
The fish is omnivorous, it feeds on juveniles, insects that fall into the water, small crustaceans, larvae, algae and water plants.
Cichlid was first described in 1862 by German zoologist Albert Gunter, though aquarists were able to get this fish to keep in their tanks only at the end of XX century.
|Scientific Name||Trichromis salvini|
|Common Names||Salvini cichlid, salvini fish|
|Ease of keeping||Easy|
|Lifespan||12 years and more|
|Tank size||200 liters (44 gallons)|
|Tank type||Community of large fishes|
|Temperature||24–26 °C (75.2-78.8 °F)|
|Size||up to 18 cm (7.09 in)|
The males grow up to 18 cm (7.09 in) long, the females are not larger than 15 centimetres (5.9 in). Provided with proper care salvini cichlid lifespan is about 12 years.
Fish has elongated body flattened from sides; it’s basic coloring is marigold yellow. Along the body, in the center there is row of large anthracite-colored spots. A bit higher there is another lateral stripe, that consists of the same spots, but of smaller size.
The fish has large head, fleshy lips and large eyes with red iris. Its gill covers are decorated with small spots and lines of turquoise green color. But, when you buy a young Salvini cichlid it doesn’t look very attractive. But things change when the fish grows up. It becomes a very noticeable in a tank and it draws the eye.
Difficulties in keeping
Salvini cichlid can be recommended for experienced aquarists, since it’d be quite challenging for the beginners to keep it.
However, the fish is rather undemanding and it can live in small tanks, but at that it my demonstrate aggression towards its tank mates. This fish requires frequent water renews and proper care.
Care and keeping in a tank
Salvini cichlid will enjoy a roomy tank, which capacity is calculated as 200 liters (44 gal) for one couple of the adult species. In case of larger tank volume you can put larger number of the fish into it at the condition that there will be not less than 30-40 liters for one fish in it.
It is crucial for a cichlid to have its own territory. During their spawning period they become more aggressive, but at that they still can get on well with other fishes.
The fish isn’t demanding in terms of the tank bottom substrate, though small pebbles or granite chipplings will be more preferable.
To make sure that tank plants will survive in the tank, they should have strong root system and the layer of the bottom substrate should be up to 8 cm thick. Put some caves or snags on the bottom, they’ll serve not only as decorations, but as shelters for the fish as well.
To keep cichlid you need a tank that has both shelters and enough of free space for the fish to swim. Flower pots, snags, stones and caves will do as shelters for the fish. Salvini cichlid don’t damage tank plants and don’t dig them as well as they look much better at such green background.
So, you can plan decorating your tank with plants and shelters put near its walls and in corners and leave some free space for swimming in the middle.
Preferable tank water parameters are the following: temperature – 24–26 °C (75,2-78,8 °F), hardness – 5–20°, pH – 7.0–8.0. Tank lighting should be moderate. The fish likes hiding in shadow of floating plants, caves and snags.
The fish isn’t too demanding as for the tank water composition. As for the water parameters, it has to be clean with low level of nitrites and ammonia content. This means, that daily water renew (up to 30%) as well as external filter is required.
Besides the fish likes when there is some water flow in a tank and you can easily create it by means of the external filter. It is also desirable to equip the tank with a heater with a thermostatic switch.
In the wild cichlid is omnivorous; it feeds mainly on aquatic organisms and small insects that fall into the water.
In a tank the fish eats all types of live, frozen or artificial food. Special food for cichlids can be its basic diet and live food such as brine shrimp, tubifex and bloodworm in small amounts can be given as supplements.
Are salvini cichlids aggressive? Sure. You should keep in mind that the fish is an aggressive one. They are especially aggressive towards its kind. Therefore, it’s quite difficult to organize keeping of more than one male fish in a tank.
The fish is definitely not for community tanks with small fishes like neon tetra or guppies in them. Is a predator and it’ll treat any small fishes only as food. Also they are territory dependent and will chase away any other fishes from its territory.
Catfishes such as common pleco or sailfin pleco will be the best tank mates for this fish. Though, it can live together with other cichlids — convict cichlid, blood parrot, firemouth cichlid, oscar, jack dempsey, green terror.
Keep in mind that, the larger is the cichlid, the more spacious tank it requires. Especially, is they start spawning. Of course, it’s better to keep them separately from other fishes. But if don’t have this chance, they’ll become less aggressive if provided with high feeding and lots of shelters in the tank.
Gender differences: male vs female
Male differs from the female in size – it is sufficiently larger. It has longer and more sharpened fins.
The female isn’t just smaller, it also has a noticeable dark spot on the bottom of its gill cover and black spots with blue edges in the middle of its dorsal, while the male doesn’t have them.
By the age of 10–12 month salvini cichlid becomes reproductive. This species is monogamic. The fish forms couples at the age of 6 month old.
Despite its small size salvini cichlid extremely aggressively protects its territory, which can be up to 2 meters in diameter. Though the fish can spawn in a community tank, still it’s better to have a separate spawning tank for this.
Otherwise, other tank dwellers will have to constantly keep quite far away from the fish nest, since it becomes very aggressive and timid during their spawning period, which can cause stress and loss of the offspring. As a result, fights and quarrels may occur in the couple because of loosing the offspring. Quite often these lead to the female death.
A tank of at least 100 liters capacity will do for spawning. Put lots of shelters on its bottom. The couple lays and fertilizes the eggs on the vertical surface of barque or inside a snag.
The fish cleans the substrate with its mouth. Genital papilla of the fish becomes noticeable 24 hours before the spawning. After the fish finishes cleaning the substrate, it starts spawning.
If the salvini cichlid couple chooses some open space in the tank for spawning, it is important to put some shed above this place – a large snag or a bunch of floating tank plants. Otherwise, the spawning may be delayed even if all other requirements are met.
Weekly renew of two tank volumes is required as well as water temperature rise at 2–4 °C – these will trigger the spawning process. Once you provide the couple with proper spawning conditions, you can expect getting the offspring soon.
The female lays eggs (up to 500) on a smooth surface of a snag or a stone. After the spawning is over, the male starts to guard the territory. The female takes care of the eggs – it fans them with its pectoral fins.
Damaged, white eggs are immediately eaten by the parents. The female leaves the eggs for some short time to feed. The male performs her duties while she is away. The egg stage lasts for three days, after this the larvae hatches (it is comparatively large). They don’t swim and eat their yolk bag. In some cases the female may carry the larvae herself several times.
After depletion of yolk bag supplies the juveniles start to swim and look for food on the tank bottom. They may find some food leftovers that were left among the tank plants after preparing the adult fish for spawning.
Start food for the juveniles is brine shrimp nauplii. Also you can feed them with chopped tubifex. You can do it at once or a week later. You should maintain rigid temperature control in the tank. It can’t be higher than 26 °C. If the temperature gets lower, it may cause the juveniles death.
The salvini cichlid male and female take care about their offspring for quite a long time. When there is no situations that cause stress, you can leave the juveniles together with their parents without putting the latter into a separate tank.
However, if the adult start to demonstrate signs of aggression, it’s better to put the juveniles into another tank.